CARBOPLATIN IS THE DRUG.The purpose of this assignment is to

  CARBOPLATIN IS THE DRUG.

The purpose of this assignment is to thoroughly evaluate one drug used to treat cancer. 

This assignment should cover all aspects of the drug which may include: drug discovery, mechanism of action, molecular interactions, scientific/medical studies, medical diagnosis of disease, disease background/prevalence, drug administration, dosing, side effects, nursing considerations, and effectiveness/efficacy of drug. 

Format: 4 PAGES (not including references or title page). Font size 12

Calibri Font .

 APA format

AT LEAST three references must be from primary literature (PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) is a great place to look. 

PubMed Central will give full length articles.).

 Proper grammar and clear/concise sentence structure will be crucial. 

Proper grammar and clear/concise sentence structure will be crucial.

Proper grammar and clear/concise sentence structure will be crucial.

Proper grammar and clear/concise sentence structure will be crucial.

EVERY THING MUST BE IN OWN WORDS!

DO NOT USE QUOTES AND EVERN WITH PROPER CITATIONS!

MUST BE IN OWN WORDS!!

 Due February 23th. 

Expert Solution Preview

Introduction:

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and many efforts are being made to develop effective therapeutics. One such therapeutic agent is carboplatin, which works by inhibiting DNA synthesis and replication in cancer cells. This drug has been used for decades as a frontline therapy for various types of cancer, including ovarian, lung, and breast cancer. In this assignment, we will explore the various aspects of carboplatin, including its discovery, mechanism of action, molecular interactions, scientific studies, medical diagnosis, disease prevalence, drug administration, dosing, side effects, nursing considerations, and effectiveness/efficacy.

Question 1: What is the discovery of carboplatin?

Carboplatin was first discovered in the 1980s by a team of researchers at Johnson Matthey, a British chemical company. The team aimed to develop a platinum-based chemotherapy agent that had fewer side effects and could be administered at higher doses than the existing drug, cisplatin. After several rounds of testing, carboplatin was found to be effective against various types of cancer, including ovarian, lung, and breast cancer. It was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use in 1989.

Question 2: What is the mechanism of action of carboplatin?

Carboplatin works by inhibiting DNA synthesis and replication in cancer cells. It does so by forming cross-links with the DNA strands, which prevents the DNA from separating and replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death, as the cancer cells can no longer divide and grow. The cross-linking also triggers apoptosis, or programmed cell death, in the cancer cells. The mechanism of action is similar to that of cisplatin, but carboplatin has a different chemical structure that allows for higher doses and fewer side effects.

Question 3: What are the molecular interactions of carboplatin?

Carboplatin binds to DNA through the formation of covalent bonds with the nitrogen atoms of the purine bases. Once the carboplatin enters the cell, it undergoes hydrolysis to form active platinum species that bind to the DNA. The formation of these cross-links prevents the DNA from unwinding and replicating, leading to cell death.

Question 4: What scientific/medical studies have been conducted on carboplatin?

Numerous preclinical and clinical studies have been conducted on carboplatin to evaluate its efficacy and safety. In preclinical studies, carboplatin has been shown to have activity against various types of cancer, including ovarian, non-small cell lung, and breast cancer. In clinical trials, carboplatin has been found to be an effective frontline therapy for advanced or metastatic ovarian cancer, and it is often used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as paclitaxel or docetaxel.

Question 5: What is the medical diagnosis of the disease?

The medical diagnosis of the disease depends on the type of cancer being treated. Ovarian cancer, for example, may be diagnosed using imaging tests such as ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scans, as well as blood tests to measure levels of cancer antigens. Biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

Question 6: What is the disease background/prevalence?

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women. It is estimated that over 20,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with ovarian cancer each year, and around 14,000 women die from the disease annually.

Question 7: What are the drug administration, dosing, side effects, and nursing considerations of carboplatin?

Carboplatin is administered intravenously, usually in a hospital or clinic setting. The dosing regimen depends on the type of cancer being treated, as well as the patient’s age, weight, and overall health. Common side effects of carboplatin include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, hair loss, and fatigue. It may also cause anemia or low platelet count, which can increase the risk of bleeding. Nursing considerations include monitoring for signs of infection or bleeding, evaluating the patient’s nutritional status, and providing supportive care to manage side effects.

Question 8: What is the effectiveness/efficacy of carboplatin?

Carboplatin has been shown to be an effective frontline therapy for advanced or metastatic ovarian cancer, with response rates ranging from 60% to 80%. It has also been used to treat other types of cancer, including lung and breast cancer, with varying levels of success. Overall, carboplatin has demonstrated good efficacy and tolerability, making it a valuable addition to the armamentarium of chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer.

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